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Month: February 2017

Challenges in Manual Testing

The number of organizations implementing formal software testing strategies is increasing gradually. Likewise, most companies nowadays prefer automating their testing efforts to save time and cost. But each organization must remember that it cannot automate the process completely. So the software testing strategy must focus on identifying and addressing major challenges as seen in manual testing.

The primary objective of manual testing is to make the software defect free, and ensure that it is working according to the requirement specification document. But the testers are required to perform manual testing without using test scripts and test automation tools. Therefore, they must address a number of important challenges to make the manual testing process effective.

Major Challenges Associated with Manual Testing

Testing the Whole Application

The QA professionals cannot test the complete software application manually. It is impossible to execute the large number of test cases required for testing the whole application manually. As they are required to complete the process within a stipulated timeframe, it is important for the organization to be clearly defined the specific combinations to be tested.

Understanding the Client Needs Clearly

As noted earlier, QA professionals need to ensure that the software application meets specific needs of the client. So they need to understand the requirements of the client clearly. At the same time, it is also important for them to communicate the client needs clearly to the developers in a clear and unambiguous way. Before starting the process, the QA professionals must pay full attention to the client’s needs.

Deciding the Required Skills

Manual testing requires QA professionals who possess a variety of skills like communication, analytical and trouble shooting. Once the professional starts working on the application, he will keep finding more defects or bugs. So he must get the bugs fixed to continue testing. This is the reason why most testers find it a daunting challenge to perform regression testing manually. When they have good communication, analysis and trouble shooting skills they can keep executing test cases by getting the bugs fixed without any delay.

Selecting the Right Testers

The experience and skills of individual QA professionals vary. As manual testing requires good communication, analytical and trouble shooting skills, it becomes essential for the organization to deploy the right personnel on the job. The manager must build an efficient team, by focusing on the expertise and skills of each individual, to manage the pressure and stress associated with conducting the exhaustive process manually.

Building Accurate Test Designs

The outcome of a manual testing project will be impacted by the quality and accuracy of the test designs. But the complex design of the software and accompanying risks make it difficult for QA professionals to create accurate designs. Further, to create the most accurate designs; the professional must have test designing skills along with adequate domain knowledge.

Prioritizing Test Case Execution

While testing a software application manually, the QA professionals are required to execute a variety of tests without using any tools. At the same …

Operating System Options and Installation Methods

An OS is installed on the computers’ hard disk, inside an area called hard disk partition. There are several ways for installing a new operating system. The installation method is based on the system hardware and end-user requirements. Generally, you have four basic options for the installation of a new operating system:

Clean Installation

We can perform a clean installation on a new computer or in those cases where there is no upgrade path between the current operating system and the new one. This type of installation deletes all data on the hard disks partition where the current operating system is installed. A new PC requires, of course a clean installation. You can also do a clean install when the current operating system installation has corrupted files or does not work properly.

Upgrade Installation

Sometimes, it is also possible to perform an upgrade. When you perform an upgrade, OS configuration settings, installed programs and data are preserved. With this installation you have nothing to worry about, because you will not lose any personal data. You will just replace the old operating system files with the new, upgraded files. However, keep in mind that after the upgrade the applications and drivers that are incompatible with the new OS will not work as expected.

Multi-boot Installation

Another option is to install multiple operating systems on a single computer. You can install each OS inside a different disk partition and this way every OS will have its own files and configuration settings. On multi-boot installations, the users see a menu when they open their computers and they have to select the desired OS. Of course, only one operating system can run at a time.


This is relative new technique that is often used on servers. With virtualization we can run numerous copies of an operating system on a single set of hardware and create this way several virtual machines. Every single virtual machine works like a separate computer. This technology makes a single physical hardware resource to appear like multiple logical resources.

Before starting any operating system installation you have to make sure that all the hardware is certified to work with the new operating system. Also confirm that the hardware resources meet the minimum installation requirements. Moreover, when you perform an upgrade it is a very good practice to perform a virus scan before starting the installation and a complete full backup of all your personal data.

One method that helps you protect your data is this: Create multiple partitions on the hard disk and install a different OS on each partition. Then copy all your data inside an empty partition that does not contain an OS. This way you can upgrade the operating system without the risk of losing any data. Backup and recovery of data files is also easier with this design.

It is also important to decide the type of file system to use. The file system controls how the OS stores and tracks the files. There are …

5 Tips To Capture Pictures For Your Business Website

When visitors see your design of any website, they hope to see images. Top-notch photographs make an excellent impression. That’s why you ought to give extra consideration to images on your website.

Here are a few tips that will help you take amazing pictures for your business website.

1. Capture Low Resolution Pictures

Don’t be surprised because you read it right – Low Resolution. Capturing images for sites is quite different from capturing photographs that are used to make prints. Site images are by and large captured at 72dpi, which implies that even a 640 x 480 picture is genuinely enough.

You can most likely set the camera for around 1280 x 960 pixels or similar. If you decide to go against this idea, then the outcome will be a bigger file size that will slow down the speed of your website pages. In reality, the photos on any common webpage are just 248×164 in size.

No matter what resolution you pick, edit the photos so they are the right size required on your webpage, and then use them on your business site. Try to compress the images if they are in JPEG (.jpg) format. You can easily make this change by setting the picture quality when it is saved. Don’t try to upload full-size images and then resize them with HTML.

2. Lighting

Ensure the photos you get are sufficiently bright. By and large, evade the utilisation of flash unless it is necessary or utilised as fill-in flash. The principle source of light need not be behind the subject, like a bright window behind the subject. You won’t like getting dark images with low contrast.

3. Focus and Composition

Every single advanced digital camera capture images that are in focus, however is the focus on what you need? While you’re capturing a photograph of a man or woman, you need to get background out of focus to ensure that it doesn’t cause any distraction. Abstain from taking long-distance shots of groups. No one will take a look at their feet; rather you should focus on taking close-ups.

Similarly, if you own an office or a store, a photo of your workplace exterior or an interior may look amazing, additionally take close-ups of individual counters, walls with good displays, so that website visitors can easily observe the type of products and services you offer. To get highly professional images for your business website, you should hire an expert photographer who can deliver results.

4. Viewpoint

Lower your camera (bend down) while capturing photographs of individual. This will allow your camera to come at bust height, and not at the height you would be at if you’ve chosen to stand up.

5. Setting Camera Colour Temperature

No matter what sort of image you capture, the camera need to be set to coordinate with the source of light. Try not to rely on upon your camera to choose this setting automatically. All cameras have settings like Sunlight, Cloudy, Fluorescent, Incandescent, so you …

Part Time Workers Look to Internet Work Online

Online internet marketing is probably one of the best ways to make money in today’s challenging world. You can start your own business and develop it as you please and make some money within a short time. If you are brand new to the online business set your self an internet marketing goal and watch your income grow over the years.

In today’s changing world, money from ordinary jobs (eg: builder, factory worker, etc.) has become harder and harder to find. Most manual workers in the USA earn less than $26,000 a year. Most people need to use the time they have free outside work to generate another income. Look, I like football, baseball, tennis and socialising as much as the next man but is that earning you an extra income? No, probably not!

Businesses and booming thanks to online internet work and this will happen for years and years to come. Self Employed business owners have a great advantage as they are self motivated to start with. The first thing that you will want to do is to geo target an area in which to promote your business. You can use devices on your PC to determine how different people get to your website and potentially buy. Using this kind of marketing will be beneficial in the long term.

Social Media sites are another great free way to market your business. It seems that most of the people who use the internet these days have a profile on at least one of the major social media websites and you will have the ability to go on and create your own page that will advertise your business that can be used to bring in potential customers. Make sure that it is catchy and attractive and will make people want to choose you over other businesses. You can also start your own blog for free that you can use to draw in customers as well.

It just takes some simple learning and patience to learn these new techniques within a short space of time you can add perhaps $1-2-300 a month then a week to your total income. Think of what a life changer that could be. If you take the time to learn how to promote your business properly using the correct advertising.

There are many different types of advertising that you can do when it comes to internet marketing most of which will not cost you anything. It will take a little bit of time on your behalf but it will be more than worth it in the end. Make sure that you do your research so that you will be able to find the methods that are going to work best for you and the type of business that you are in.…

Defining Social Algorithm

The word social is currently in vogue, we have social networking, social software, social bookmarking, and now social algorithm. Social networking is the activity, social software are the tools which make social networking possible, but what is a social algorithm?

The following tries to define what a social algorithm is.

Social Networking.

Let us look at the examples. Famous social networking sites include Flickr, YouTube, MySpace, Friendster, Wikipedia, Facebook, del.icio.us and the the virtual gaming world of Second Life. Bookmarking and tagging are considered social network activities. The purpose of the network is for people to rendezvous, collaborate, or just sharing something (photos, music, movies, information, etc).

Social Software.

Social software are the tools which make it possible for people to network. These range from email, mailing lists, RSS, IRC, instant messaging, Napster like P2P, blogs, wikis, AJAX, Web 2, etc. Their characteristic is that the networking must be interactive, and bottom-up (users provide content). These software used to be called group-ware. Some of these software are quite old, but some others like blogs are more recent. Wikis have been around ever since Ward Cunningham, the father of Wiki started it, but it was then considered for geeks only, and have been accepted widely only in the last couple of years. Some software are documented using wikis, and businesses, educational institutions have started to make use of it.


So, what is a social algorithm? An algorithm is like a cooking recipe or computer program with step-by-step instructions to execute a procedure. Algorithms are stated in pseudo-code, easy for people to understand, and are more abstract than computer programs. The programs are said to implement some algorithm, being a machine level translation of the pseudo-code.

Although most algorithms are numerical, they need not be, as shown in cooking recipes, logical unification algorithm, string matching, face recognition, etc.

Agent based.

Social algorithms differs from general algorithms in that they involve agents, and the algorithm is the result of the interaction of the agents. The ant colony algorithm is an example, with ants as the agents, and used to solve some problem, such as the shortest path or the traveling salesman problem. Social algorithms can used for distributed problem solving as the ant colony algorithm, but need not be.

It is said that Google’s PageRank algorithm is the decisive factor for Google to win the battle of the web. The PageRank algorithm ranks websites using many criteria, including the number of inbound links, each with a weight which is the PageRank of the referring site (the algorithm is recursive and almost real-time).

To have an idea of the algorithm, here is a description:

The original PageRank algorithm was described by Lawrence Page and Sergey Brin in several publications.

It is given by

PR(A) = (1-d) + d (PR(T1)/C(T1) + … + PR(Tn)/C(Tn))


PR(A) is the PageRank of page A,

PR(Ti) is the PageRank of pages Ti which link to page A,

C(Ti) is the number of outbound links on page Ti …

Parts of a Website Page

1. Parts of a website page can be broken down in 10 steps to show a closer look at the anatomy of a website.  As you look at the top of any web page you should be able to find the ID of the page or logo that represents the company. The upper part of the website is usually called the header. There are no rules that say you must put the website ID on the left side of the page. It can be placed in the center or right side of the page if you choose to do so.

2. You may find a banner ad to the left or the right of the site ID. A banner ad can be placed there if your person that owns the website has decided to advertise or sell the space to another advertiser hoping to make sales.

3. If your website is an e-commerce website, you will traditionally see a shopping cart to the right. People usually read left to right so it’s logical to see a shopping cart to the right of your banner ad and website ID.

4. Just below the header you may find a list of buttons that tell you about the company and what they have to offer.  Buttons can sometimes be listed as home, about, contact, etc.  This could be one or two tiers and is called the navigation bar.

5. On another tier of the same navigation bar, you may find a list of what the company is selling by category. Sometime you’ll find this information on the left side of the page depending on how you set it up. It is believed that people like information directly in front of them for easy access.

6.  On that same line of the navigation bar, a search box can be added as well. It depends on how many pages you have on your website. If your site is has a lot of content, it’s customary to add a search box.  If you have a lot of categories your visitors need to see for better service to them, you can even add another section of the navigation buttons below the second tier of navigation buttons.

7.  If you find you have a lot of subsections for the products you’re selling, you can add another navigation bar on the left side of the page.  Maybe your website sells, flat screen TV’s and you want to show more of a breakdown of the product by parts.  A left side navigation bar could work.

8.  Just below the header in the center of the page you will find your title with H1 Tag. I point out H1 tags because Header tags help search engines know the clear intention of your web page.  The title will help optimize your page even better with a Header tag.

9.  Just below the title is where your visitors should find the content that describes your products and services; maybe listing TV’s by parts …

Importance Of Website Maintenance You Ought To Know

Do you have a business website? Is it living up to expectations? Is it giving you the expected results? When was the last time you updated it? Never – seriously? Well! Website maintenance is web industry’s hot potato, but it is very important. The reason you are not getting expected traffic from your website is that you build it and forget it. If you are doing this mistake, then all your work till now has gone to waste. For sure, you don’t want to start the whole work all over again – do you? Give some real-time to your website and wait for the patrons to break the door. If you still have any second thought about website maintenance, so, go on. All the points mentioned below will clear out all the queries you have.

Why Is It Important To Maintain The Website?

  • Help To Catch The New Customers: If you maintain your website and keep it up to date, so, it will helps to bring in more and more customer to your website. Why so surprised? You cannot deny the fact that if your website is up-to-date, design is on the mark, content is creative, so, it will definitely give anyone a reason to give a look.
  • Boost Your Search Engine Ranking: Google will boost up your website ranking if it has all the bells and whistles that satisfy the user demand. And Google will update its algorithm constantly; therefore, it is important to update your website, if you don’t want to lose your identity in the crowd.
  • Build Your Corporate Image: No doubt, your website works as a mirror that reflects your objective to customers and gives them a reason to get connected with you. And if you update your website over the time, so, it will surely take care of your corporate image even in the cut-throat competition.
  • Fix Bugs And Double Your Security Level: Website maintenance is also important to keep it up-to-date with the latest technology. With every new update, the level of security goes high, which easily win the trust of the customers. Besides, it also helps you to fix any bug on your website.

In a nutshell, website maintenance is important as it improves its overall performance and plays a vital role in winning the belief of the patrons. It’s a gold mine and you should never let it go. You can even hire a professional team or company to help you in designing and maintaining your website at the most affordable price.…

How a Business Can Benefit From the Internet

With today's advances in technologies and the rapid growth of the Internet having an online presence for a business is very beneficial. A business can benefit in many ways from owning its own Web site. Only a few years ago, if a customer wanted to do business with a specific company he or she would have to physically go to the business or, in less common cases, they could order from a catalog. The development of Internet technologies has created an environment where collaborating with clients, communicating with employees, marketing, and training have evolved to reach a broader group of clients in a more efficient manner.

With the development and growth of Internet search engines, the way people find businesses has changed a great deal in the past few years. Someone in need of a product or service in a geographical area could go on the Internet and search for what they were inquiring about. The Internet search would give the person a list of Web sites to choose from. For example; If he or she were in need of a plumber they would use the Internet to search for a plumber in their city. In the search results he or she would find a plumber's Web site and obtain their telephone number. The use of paper-back phone books to find businesses is slowly disappearing.

Internet technologies and Web pages also help businesses with when and where they can sell their products. With the recent development of online shopping Web sites, also known as ecommerce sites, companies are able to sell products anytime and from anywhere over the internet. The need for the old brick and mortar store is not always necessary. For example; If he or she wanted to buy a certain book they could go to the store and buy it. With the Internet and shopping Web sites, he or she could find the book virtuously and have it delivered to their house. Another type of shopping Web site is the auction site. An auction site allows an individual to bid on something over a period of time, usually for a reduced price. Having an online shopping Web site will greatly benefit a business when selling products, whether that is through an on-line store or through an auction site.

Marketing and advertising a business has changed recently because of the Internet. The traditional methods of advertising a product or service was usually done through printed ads and radio commercials. With the Internet, companies are advertising their products and services on popular Web sites. The more popular a Web page, the higher the charge for advertising space. Other Internet advertising options allow a company to advertise at specific times and specific geographic regions. Internet marketing can expand business advertising to the entire world.

Another great Internet advertising system is social media. Social media Web sites could be good for a business by linking together groups and other businesses to share information. This can drive new clients to a business. …

How To Attract Or Build A Relationship Using Divine Technology

Life is never without relationship problems, be it with your spouse, children, family or friends. Relationship is the pillar of life and your success depends very much on it. In business, how well you perform and how successful you are all depends on your relationship with your fellow workers, bosses, suppliers and customers.

There are also problems with the lack of relationships. People go through life without having the right partner or switching from one partner to another in the search for the right one. With working hours getting longer as people spend more time building their careers, relationship building often take its toll.

So how do you mend or attract relationships? In the oneness of yoga and the divine connection among all humans, the sound or mantra that attracts and builds relationships is KLEEM. KLEEM is the primordial sound that exists since the beginning of time, and the archetype behind this sound is Goddess Parvati, who rules relationships. Just by chanting this sound daily will change your brain patterns and thought frequency and cause your surroundings to change and vibrate with your own energy.

If you are having a problem with your spouse or partner, chanting KLEEM repeatedly while picturing the person in your mid-brain will cause him or her to vibrate with your frequency. The result will be that that person will come to an agreement with you. Speaking or counselling seldom works and even if they do, the change will not be 100{90c905eaca51001bdd05d2b9e50215b66b04dff3fb532a24d541d876dbf9d189}. What you need is divine technology to help you alter the problem at its root cause. This mantra will go deep into your consciousness and repair the relationship at the particle level and change its form. Divine technology is the solution for humankind and in essence we are all divine beings in human forms.

In attracting a relationship, chanting KLEEM repeatedly will cause your vibrational frequency to connect with the person that your soul is searching for. Your soul will identify the right person and will cause the two souls to meet. As if by magic, the right person will turn up as you attend a seminar, shop at the supermarket or through other friends. Your soul knows you better so a soul mate is always the best mate.

So KLEEM is the mantra or sound to use and the best thing about it is that it is free. It is the sound used by yogis and seers in India who received this divine gift in their deep states of ‘samadhi’ or meditation. The sound can be found and downloaded from YouTube for easy listening.…

Predictive Analytics in Software Testing

In today’s world, there are a lot of companies which face sudden increase in costs, production delays and experiencing operational risks due to lack of Predictive Analytics in Testing. Predictive Analytics is a data driven technology which can be leveraged to predict failure points in testing and determine the future. It has the power to optimize project data and enables the business leaders to make really quick strategic decisions.

Broadly, there are two types of companies. In one type, there are software testing companies which perform testing using its in-house testing environment and in the other type, there are software development companies which simply outsource the entire testing activities to preferred vendors.

• A software testing company focuses on timely launch of the product by using its in-house testing team.

• A software development company outsources testing and expects on time deliverables.

Typically, testing companies follow a lengthy process for any testing project in an effort to reduce operational issues and costs. In this process, these companies encounter many issues with every new project.

Let’s look at some of the challenges involved with in-house testing.

In-house Testing Challenges

• Finding right testers and aligning them to the project

• Fix time and budget for the project

• Need of Multiple testing tools and infrastructure

• Meeting productivity goals

• Current testing issues leading to unknown future challenges

• Different Stake-holders expecting different reports

Testing companies need to perform Predictive Analytics at operational level to avoid productivity delays and issues while dealing with root causes at the early stages. The development companies that outsource all the testing activities would prefer looking forward to focus more on core business while avoiding increasing costs associated with testing but these companies face a lot of delays for deliverables and the costs keep exceeding.

Let’s look at some of the expectations from outsourcing testing.

Expectations of the Client from Testing Vendors

• Complete requirement understanding of the projects

• Flexible to quickly adapt to changes in the requirements

• Adherence of delivering on time

• Communication and Coordination

• Testing effectiveness, consistency and satisfaction

• Test coverage

• On time product delivery

The development companies need to perform Predictive Analytics at the business level to avoid slow deliverables by identifying right vendor and a right team for right project.

Predictive analytics is rapidly becoming one of the most-discussed topics in software testing projects because it can mitigate operational risk and help in planning, quality and delivery. Predictive analytics is widely used today in many industries such as healthcare, life sciences, insurance and finance but it is not limited to only these industries. It can be leveraged in Software Testing to significantly improve business.

Advantages of Predictive Analytics in Software Testing

• Predict testing issues at the earliest which can lead to unknown future challenges

• Predict deliverables

• Mitigate Communication and Coordination issues

• Predict right environment/right Vendor

• Improve Planning, Quality and Delivery

• Meet business needs

Conclusion: Predictive Analytics helps development and testing …